Antimicrobial activity, cytotoxic test and phytochemical screening of extracts of the stem of Fadogia agrestis

O.M. Ameen, G.A. Olatunji, R.F. Atata, L.A. Usman


The use of medicinal plants with therapeutic properties represents a secular tradition in different cultures, mainly in underdeveloped countries. Fadogia agrestis is commonly used in the management of erectile dysfunction. In this study, the
cytotoxicity using brine shrimp lethality test (BST) and antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria strains of the chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Fadogia agrestis stem are presented. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening of all the extract revealed the presence of reducing sugar, carbohydrates and alkaloids. In addition, the chloroform extract showed presence of saponins and flavanoids. In ethyl acetate extract; terpenoids was found, while methanolic extracts contain saponins, steroids, terpenoids and flavanoids.
Tannins, anthraquinone and glycosides were not detected in the three extracts. The extracts exhibited low toxicity against the brine shrimp Artemia salina but demonstrated antibacterial activities against the tested bacteria, with chloroform extract showing high activity against S. aureus, S. spp, B. subtilis and E. coli (MIC 6.75 mg/ml). These results should prompt new researches in order to isolate the constituents responsible for the activity.

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