Aqueous Extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Ameliorates Cadmium-Induced Liver and Kidney Injuries in Male Wistar Rats

SO Ebhohon, RC Ibeh, EU Ejiofor, OD Abu, FC Chibueze


This study investigated the ameliorative effect of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa on cadmium-induced liver and kidney injuries in Wistar rats. Twenty-five (25) adult male Wstar rats were randomly assigned to five groups of five rats each. With the exception of group A (normal control group), rats in groups B to E received 50 mg/kg body weight, bwt, of cadmium orally once every three days. Rats in group B were not treated with extract or silymarin, group C received 100 mg/kg bwt silymarin, group D received 250 mg/kg bwt of extract, while group E received 500 mg/kg bwt of extract. After 21 days of treatment, the rats were sacrificed, and blood and tissue samples collected for biochemical analysis. The result obtained showed that cadmium significantly increased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), and significantly reduced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in the kidney of rats (p < 0.05). However, treatment with aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa or silymarin significantly increased the activities of SOD and catalase, and significantly reduced the concentration of MDA in these tissues (p < 0.05). The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly increased in serum of rats induced with cadmium. However, treatment with aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa significantly reversed the effect of cadmium on the activities of these enzymes (p < 0.05). The concentration of total protein (TP) was significantly higher in extract-treated groups than in group B (negative control) (p < 0.05). The concentrations of creatinine and urea were also significantly higher in group B (negative control) than in extract-treated groups (p < 0.05). These results suggest that H. sabdariffa protects liver and kidney against cadmium- induced hepatorenal toxicity comparable to the effect of silymarin.

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